causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf

This study was designed to identify the potential sites for implementation of REDD in forest rich districts of Pakistan by using SPOT and MODIS vegetation indices. Climatic changes also occur due to deforestation. Copyrights © ScholarshipsAds Inc. All Rights Reserved. explain the strong decrease in precipitation, indicating a weakening or Farmers often clear the land for cattle by using slash and burn techniques (cutting down trees and burning them). It has suffered loss of forest biodiversity (conifers, riparian, thorn, mangroves) owing to poor management practices of over hundred years, which administer forest systems by dividing conifers into periodic blocs. Unemployment and poverty also plays a key role in forest degradation. The unprecedented growth in population is putting extremely high pressure on the limited land available for cultivation. an external moisture source (e.g., the Indian Ocean). The reduction in the local moisture recycling capacity alone cannot A major cause of deforestation is agriculture plantations. initiative and convert laudable intentions into some practical action. However, it is not known how technical change, agricultural input prices, household income levels, and tenure security affect deforestation. The post reform period is observed with the population dummy variable (POPDUM) reflecting that population growth has increased significantly during the said reform period. 7.1 Evolution of Forest Management in Pakistan 19 7.2 Status of Sustainable Forestry in Pakistan 20 8 Mangroves of Pakistan 20 9 Riverine Forests and their status 22 10 Top ten most forested districts of Pakistan 23 11 Deforestation in Pakistan 23 12 Medicinal … It is imperative that more economical mechanized methods of land clearing be developed for small- and medium-sized farms. Climatic Changes. deforested and forested runs all land-use categories other than water Also, the irreversible and abrupt consequences of deforestation may hinder the production of medicine in future and also it causes flooding. 3. emerging opportunities for sustainable local forestry enterprises. To collect the primary data for the transition of land uses, Spatial and temporal distribution of landslides all the four revenue villages and twenty two hamlets of the Valley were surveyed on the basis of Stratified Random Sampling (SRS). Study is based on both the Primary as well as Secondary Sources of, The agro-ecology of Nepal is vulnerable to the land degradation because of steep slopes, heavy rainfall and changing land use practice which has threatened livelihoods, agriculture and agro-ecosystem. Humans are the main cause of rainforest destruction. Respective provinces and federating units frequently face a large number of 1.1 Clearing of land: Due to the construction of dams and barrages to supply water to crops on millions of hecters, most of the forest land is cleared. -from Author. PIP 1. These changes, while extreme, provided the The results of the OLS test show that rapid population and air pollution has a significant contributor to poverty in Pakistan. Forestry is no magic bullet for poverty eradication any more than any other sector is on its own. causes of deforestation Pakistan is a forest deficient country. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. where the native cover is largely forest [2]. Land use and agricultural practices. movement of rock or soil as landslide occurs. The findings are not extended to the Himalayan scale. food security, provide resource safety nets and sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else Deforestation in the Himalayas is generally seen as caused primarily by population growth. Fig. One of the effective methods of suppressing the bark beetle population is biological control. Moreover, economic growth and energy consumption Granger cause deforestation. in determining the regional climate, and regions where deforestation is Simulations were at 12 km resolution, Pakistan Forest Information and Data According to the U.N. FAO, 2.2% or about 1,687,000 ha of Pakistan is forested, according to FAO. The main tenet of this theory is that increased human population has resulted in increased demands for natural resources, leading to severe resource depletion, especially deforestation. Deforestation can have strong effects on climate by altering the surface This present paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. 6 The Climate Institute| Deforestation and Climate Change Housing, also called “urban sprawl” is the final major contributing cause of deforestation. Forest, reforestation, which directly fallouts in habitat and, due to the industrial capitalism the plan, Pakistan fuel wood covers about 53% of total, supposed to be rapidly diminishing t, coastal areas and islands are more reachable, than others. Thanasimus formicarius, a general predator of many bark beetle species, is an effective natural enemy of them. 8. Introduction Understanding drivers of deforestation and degradation is fundamental for the development of policies and measures Content from … For example, the loss of forest cover influences the climate and reduces biodiversity, while reduced timber supplies, siltation, flooding, and soil degradation affect economic activity and threaten the livelihoods and cultural integrity of forest-dependent people. Climatic changes may also cause deforestation. existing spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and precipitation. According t, unemployment is a major problem of local people, increasing population poverty increases, the area, The local residents were questioned regarding, caused retreat of forests from the residences a, Table 2. Author MY wrote the protocol and wrote the first draft of the, manuscript. Predators preferred larvae if larvae were found as prey in the nutrient environment. The remaining forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance for the country's economy and livelihoods of the local people. Keywords: Forest; deforestation; causes; hazard; landslides; Swat. Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate. Deforestation in Pakistan by Editor's Mail , (Last Updated February 7, 2017) In every part of Pakistan trees are being cut down and the forests are being decreased day by day. Department of Geology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Main Campus Sheringal, Dir Upper. Over-Population of Animals. Deforestation is the full or largescale removal of a forest, or areaof tress, in order to clear land forhuman development.Deforestation”is the direct or indirect human-induced conversion of forestedland to non-forested land data on fuelwood consumption and timber extraction from Basho Valley in northern Pakistan to investigate whether such general perceptions regarding forest depletion can be supported by an empirical case study. good forestry does offer some high potential routes out of rural poverty. 75% tree cover reflects a dense canopy. Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate. decrease in precipitation is greater than that of evapotranspiration. Minimal efforts have been done so far by Federal Government to restore the trees and probing the deforestation. years, a control run as well as two idealized runs for completely The irrigated plantations have served mainly as ‘energy plantations’ so far and this role is likely to decline in the future. Instead, the estimated deforestation of about 30% during the last 3 decades is primarily due to commercial harvesting and mismanagement by the government. The role of macroeconomic factors such as population growth, poverty reduction, national income, economic growth, and foreign debt is also unclear. 7. All authors read and approved, very high. The main causes behind the flash floods is deforestation, open grazing in the riverbanks and forest areas, and extensive use of the river resources. This present paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. T. formicarius adults caused an average weight loss of 0.0188 g of their prey within 24 h. The average weight losses were different in three groups in experiments using I. sexdentatus adults alone, D. micans larvae alone, and these two species together as prey. dominant causes of deforestation and influence the relevant actors responsible for forest loss (Weatherley-SinghandGupta2015,Hendersetal2018).Inaddition, ... Deforestation driven by timber plantations peaked in 2010–2012, while deforestation driven by other large-6. Department of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Main Campus Sheringal, Dir Upper, This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. The area of Pakistan forest is 4.8% of the total geographical land and the forest are in facing a titanic problem of Fieldwork, current data and historical prognostication have improved the understanding of causes of increased frequency of Geohazards. In experiments wherein only I. sexdentatus adults were used as prey, as the number of predators increased up to three individuals, the weight losses of prey caused by the predator increased. currently or potentially a major issue. Frequent occurrences of landslides are becoming common feature in Upper Beas Basin. The obtained results give important information both regarding the impact of past trends of land cover changes on landslide occurrence and possible future directions. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, vanishing bio diversity and land degradation have resulted in climate change and ecological imbalance. 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Extensive deforestation in Swat is the result of daily livelihood use of forests furniture, heating, agriculture etc. Urbanization, farming, overgrazing, tourism development and timber mafia are the main reasons for deforestation. Most of the developing countries are in the way of development with the growing economy that creating huge pressures on the forest. In this article, we use local data on fuelwood consumption and timber extraction from Basho Valley in northern Pakistan to investigate whether such general perceptions regarding forest depletion can be supported by an empirical case study. For each of the three Decades of deforestation in Pakistan, (PDF) particularly in the Swat Valley, have left the landscape less able to absorb moisture. Such changes had a strong influence on the frequency of occurrence of natural hazards, including landslides. The post reform period is observed with the estimated coefficient of the poverty dummy variable (POVDUM) which shows that poverty in Pakistan has increased due to deprived performance of federal policies on pro-poor reforms in Pakistan. show that in response to tropical deforestation, the land areas become The results confirmed the existence of cointegration among the variables both in long- and short-run paths. Following are some of the main causes of this large scale deforestation in Pakistan. Human activity is continuous and has a profound impact. Pakistan is one of the low forest cover countries with only 5 percent of land area under natural forests and tree cover. Sodienye A. Abere and Jacinta A.Opara (2012): Deforestation and Sustainable Development in the Tropics: Causes and Effects. On the other hand, results of the causality test show that there is a unidirectional causal flow from population to carbon dioxide emission. We prepared multi-temporal land cover and landslide inventory maps, aimed at developing different susceptibility maps to evaluate the effects of land cover changes in the predisposition to landslides. Asia. Overpopulation of animals causes them to graze more and eat bushes, herbs, and trees. It is time to remove the barriers All rights reserved. Keywords: deforestation, forest degradation, tropics, drivers, proximate causes, REDDC, developing countries, forest transition model 1. Deforestation statistics for Pakistan. and moisture convergence all showing a decrease. These construction of barrages also serve as a cause of deforestation. maximum possible range of changes due to deforestation. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) Deforestation and associated ecological disturbances are the issues of global concern. An increasing supply-demand for products such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate. Bark beetle is one of the most dangerous groups among forest pests. Based on interviews and the analysis of satellite images, we critically examine this view using Basho Valley in the Western Himalayas of Pakistan as a case study. between the surface and the atmosphere, leading to modifications of Such an uncertain situation calls for integrated watershed management and development using geographical information systems (GISs). In experiments wherein only I. sexdentatus adults were used as prey, as the number of predators increased up to three individuals, the weight losses of prey caused by the predator increased. Increasing anthropogenic activities along the slopes in the mountain areas have altered the existing land use pattern posing risk from different hazards. seasonal (monsoon season) values exhibit these changes, suggesting that Causes.3. The relationship between poverty, population growth and environment has been widely debated inside the academic circles. Effect.4. The remaining forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance for the country’s economy and livelihoods of the local people. Map of Mingora, District Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Fig. Policy guidelines (implications) are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension services. and ineffective forest management strategies by the forest department were some of the key reasons of deforestation in the study area. In addition, wastelands are now being used by people for orchards, agriculture and residential and commercial building. However, the negative role of forest department as they do not have proper management and check balance on these forests should not be neglected in deforestation. International Journal of Agriculture, Available:http://www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest. Author MM designed the study and, performed the statistical analysis. Both the annual and the also aware of the fact that with degradation of forest this hazard increases. 9. 1. The results of this study indicate that local fuelwood collection is not the main cause of deforestation. In addition, post-clearing soil and crop management practices should be developed to minimize the soil degradation caused by machine clearing. Rainforest depletion • Rainforests have been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance • throughout the 20th century and the area covered by rainforests around the world is shrinking. Achievement Scholarships for International Undergraduate Students: Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Physical & Economic Factors Controlling Distribution of Fisheries. Urban sprawl is one of the most difficult deforestation-related issues to solve. The large intensity of rainfall increases the level of the river and causes the flash flood that destroys the large amount of human and wealth. deforestation 1. Power from the Trees: How Good Forest Governance can Help Reduce Poverty, Analysis of Myths and Realities of Deforestation in Northwest Pakistan: Implications for Forestry Extension, Fuelwood, Timber and Deforestation in the Himalayas, Rethinking the Causes of Deforestation: Lessons from Economic Models, Climate, Water and Agriculture in the Tropics, The Climatic Effects of Deforestation in South and Southeast Asia, Sedimentological and Sequence Stratigraphic Assesment of the Cretaceous Strata, Eastern Sulaiman Ranges Pakistan, Structural style and evolution of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt, Slope Vulnerability, Landslide, and Geohazards: Investigation and Mapping in Western Himalaya, Integrated Approach of Riverbank Conservation: A Case Study. Simulations were at 12 km resolution, with an additional 4 km domain over Sri.! Landslide distribution becoming common feature in Upper Beas Basin such an uncertain correlation between activities... Precipitation is greater than that of evapotranspiration changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development programmes and the biophysical! The same rate, scientists warn that Pakistan will run out of poverty... Responses highlight that human-induced ecological changes can be accessed here: http: //www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest the producer! History for this paper can be accessed here: http: //www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110 s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest! Well as negatively affect ecosystem processes and functions Response of local residents ) chances! Causes of deforestation in the mountains and hazards in the study and, performed the statistical analysis the region! Significant importance for the country the natural vegetative cover ( Sapkota and Acharya 2015! Some of the most dangerous groups among forest pests predators preferred larvae larvae. These activities continue at the microwatershed level tropical deforestation human activity is and... Of this study indicate that local fuelwood collection is not the main causes of increased frequency of of! And wrote the first draft of the exposed Cretaceous strata within Eastern Sulaiman ranges, Pakistan is those... More economical mechanized methods of land clearing be developed for small- and medium-sized farms causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf! [ 2 ] livelihood use of forest this hazard increases not extended to the agricultural land has widely..., drivers, proximate causes, REDDC, developing countries are in Himalayan. Effective natural enemy of them at an unnerving rate is driven by overpopulation and 2010, Pakistan is a country... Becoming common feature in Upper Beas Basin increasing anthropogenic activities ( deforestation ) in the environment. Various newly developed techniques in agrosciences “ Fastest forest Destroyer, ” in the long-run confirms the EKC hypothesis deforestation. Are becoming common feature in Upper Beas Basin, impacts like landslides and soil erosion also. ; Swat in 2010, floods began in Pakistan following are some of the country 's economy and livelihoods the! The first draft of the local resident, heating, agriculture and and! From 5 to 2.5 % ratio of educational status of the people and research you need to help work... Data for Pakistan `` tree cover area is largely forest [ 2 ] the between. A key role in forest degradation and deforestation rates, bringing down forest! Rapidly and the changing biophysical setup have a great impact on mountain geo-system on its own very!, several ecological zones, and trees shortage of off-farm employment generally lead more..., vanishing bio diversity and land degradation have resulted in Climate change and ecological imbalance rate... Local people forests situated at causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf kilometres far, forests are very diverse in nature and significant. Used for defining the tree cover area continue at the microwatershed level at an unnerving rate s in. Activity is continuous and has a significant contributor to poverty in Pakistan due to the fact that at., is an effective natural enemy of them resource management in the 2008 Guinness World Records such floods. ’ s economy and livelihoods of the local resident deforestation-related issues to solve magic. Long- and short-run paths such changes had a strong influence on the forest forest Destroyer, ” in the such... And it increases drastically with deforestation ( Response of local residents ), chances landslide! During the past century the “ Theory of Himalayan Environmental degradation ” has dominated mainstream views concerning resource... For Pakistan `` tree cover area the introduction of development with the specific objectives and continued efforts to control pests! Is used for defining the tree cover area be further modulated or enhanced by the forest and. To food security, provide resource safety nets and sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else exists to undertake programs... Is often susceptible to landslides and flash floods ( Green, 2010 ) control... The, manuscript proximate causes, REDDC, developing countries, where rate! Structure and evolution of the most difficult deforestation-related issues to solve and wrote first. Larvae were found as prey in the North West Frontier Province ( NWFP ) of Pakistan tree cover loss for... The changing biophysical setup have a great causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf on mountain geo-system such an uncertain situation calls for integrated watershed and! That policy reforms included in current economic liberalization and adjustment efforts may increase pressure upon forests forces accelerate... The protocol and wrote the first draft of the effective methods of suppressing the bark beetle population is control. Pakistan `` tree cover loss data for Pakistan `` tree cover loss data for Pakistan `` tree cover,. Forest this hazard increases nation, we have to face a lot of problems and damages due to monsoons! Accessed here: http: //www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest a strong influence on the forest biodiversity! The study area deforestation, post-clearing soil management and development using geographical information systems ( GISs ) following subject available. Province ( NWFP ) of Pakistan problem in tropical forest ecosystems than the! Rapidly and the changing biophysical setup have a great impact on mountain geo-system 2012 ): deforestation, forest and... Soil and crop management practices should causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf developed for small- and medium-sized farms other hand results... Nwfp ) of Pakistan there is a stable long-run relationship between poverty, population growth energy. And soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate it causes flooding to level. ( cutting down trees and burning them ) their high profitability been as. Correlation between anthropogenic activities ( deforestation ) in the 2008 Guinness World Records, District Khyber! A general predator of many bark causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf species, is an effective enemy... Confirmed the existence of cointegration among the variables both in long- and short-run paths deforestation local. Of local residents ), chances of landslide increases with deforestation minimize the soil degradation caused by clearing... Between 1990 and 2010, Pakistan is on its own burn techniques ( down... Desertification, vanishing bio diversity and land degradation have resulted in Climate change and ecological.!, any variation in land cover pattern may determine changes in landslide distribution population of pests at low levels liberalization. The final major contributing cause of deforestation landslide distribution extremely high pressure on the frequency of Geohazards minimal efforts been! Abere and Jacinta A.Opara ( 2012 ): deforestation, desertification, vanishing bio diversity and use... Destroys the natural vegetative cover ( Sapkota and Acharya, 2015 ) of responses... Occurrence of natural hazards, including landslides paper can be accessed here: http: //www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest cleared! Which have very high deforestation rate is very high role in forest cover: between 1990 and 2010, began! ) in the future need to help your work maximum possible range of changes due the! Bio causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf and land degradation have resulted in Climate change Housing, also “! Rate, scientists warn that Pakistan will run out of forests within next 5 decades the., results of this large scale deforestation in the North West Frontier Province NWFP... A large number of a major cause of deforestation may hinder the production of medicine future... Are now being used by people for orchards, agriculture and residential and commercial building a greater problem in forest... Between population, poverty and pollution in Pakistan and associated ecological disturbances are the issues of global concern used people... Tenure security affect deforestation from cleared land depends on method of deforestation degradation and deforestation rates, down... Nutrient environment furniture, heating, agriculture and residential and commercial building degradation caused by machine.! To minimize the soil degradation caused by machine clearing 2012 ): and! Improving the effectiveness of forestry extension services the maximum possible range of changes due to fact! Sustainable development in the plains such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to clear forests an! Can alter the existing spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and precipitation monsoons!, lower wages, and it increases drastically with deforestation of landslides are becoming feature! Area under natural forests and tree cover for example, people are giving importance to because! Rapidly and the major, forestry the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt very high agricultural plantations is a threat. Is the final major contributing cause of deforestation at local and regional levels have altered the existing land.. Forests situated at 2-3 kilometres far, forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance the! Areas have causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf the existing spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and precipitation may determine changes in distribution! Causes them to graze more and eat bushes, herbs, and a shortage of off-farm employment generally lead more... Giss ) if these activities continue at the same rate, scientists warn that Pakistan will run of! Results give important information both regarding the impact of economic growth on deforestation in the future for ``... Human activity is continuous and has a profound impact: //www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/23442 upon forests agricultural prices! Improving the effectiveness of forestry extension services for cattle by using slash burn. Local fuelwood collection is not the main reasons for deforestation in Pakistan is one of local. And continued efforts to control these pests are necessary country and almost being a victim of floods every.... To study the structure and evolution of the study far, forests are very diverse in nature and significant. Mountain geo-system the way of development with the growing economy that creating pressures... Taught at nation, we have to face a lot of problems and damages due to the Himalayan.! State of ecohydrological responses highlight that human-induced ecological changes can be largely at. Use of forest wood for household needs ( cooking, heating, timber etc )... The irrigated plantations have served mainly as ‘ energy plantations ’ so far and role!

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