(2016). However, it may also be due to the greater ability of invasive species to uptake lateral N subsidies that can modify ecosystem N dynamics. Plant Sci. Wilcoxon’s heterozygosity excess test was conducted using the following three models: the infinite allele mutation model (IAM), the stepwise mutation model (SMM), and the two-phased model of mutation (TPM), with a 70% single-step mutation and a 30% multistep mutation. S. anglica is a fertile polyploid derived from the hybrid S.alterniflora × townsendii (S. alterniflora × S. maritima), first found when American S. alterniflora was introduced to southern England in about 1870 and came into contact with the local native S. maritima. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01992.x. Conserv. (Rosaceae) in its native range and in areas of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Hortus Northwest 6, 9–12, 38-40. YM, MT, and DH designed and coordinated the research. We would like to thank Dr. Tadao Kitagawa, Dr. Takuo Sawahata, Dr. Kaori Kochi, Takahiro Kusaka (Kindai University), Kano Koide (Japan Wildlife Research Center), and Reiko Ito (Kyushu Kaihatsu Engineering Co., Ltd.) for their helpful suggestions and supports regarding this manuscript. Invasion of the non-indigenous nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into water supply facilities in Japan. The base sequence of the trnT–trnL obtained in this study was compared with the existing 42 haplotypes in S. alterniflora (accession numbers AY927278–AY927299 and DQ486839–DQ486858) (Blum et al., 2007) in order to determine its haplotype. (1985). Despite this, it took approximately 6 years from its first detection to the start at the eradication project. Hollow stems grow from 2 to 4 ft (0.6 to 1.2 m) tall. Populations of S. alterniflora in the Grays Harbor, Washington (haplotype B) and Taiwan (haplotype C4), which had only a single haplotype as well as Japan (Figure 2), were unintentionally and secondarily introduced from the Willapa Bay, Washington (the Pacific coast of the U.S.) (Civille et al., 2005) and the vicinity of Fujian (China) (Lin et al., 2015), respectively. doi: 10.2307/2403612. Invasions 18 (5), 1485–1498. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the quarantine control on the importation of commodities, especially of transport vehicles at potential donor spots (i.e., border control/border biosecurity system), to decrease further risks of various biological invaders (Chornesky and Randall, 2003; Xu et al., 2006) including that of Spartina species (Castillo et al., 2018; Gallego-Tévar et al., 2019). The significant excessive homozygosity on Japanese S. alterniflora populations was observed in the infinite allele mutation model (IAM), the stepwise mutation model (SMM), and the two-phased model of mutation (TPM) (P<0.05). Manage. (1991). Ecol. Taxonomy: Scientific and Common Names for This Species, Native Spartina Species Resemble Smooth Cordgrass, Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), How to report an invasive species sighting to EDDMapS, United States Land-Grant University System, Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas. (A) The estimation of the optimum number of clusters based on ΔK. The g values of Japanese S. alterniflora populations, excluding the Shirakawa, lay within 0.80 to 1.00, almost equivalent to those in China (g = 0.77 ± 0.39) and the introduced in Willapa Bay (the Pacific coast of the U.S.) (g = 0.95). Neira, C., Levin, L. A., Grosholz, E. D. (2005). In a laboratory incubation experiment lasting for 153 days, we used two types of soil which were collected from invasive S. alterniflora and native Phragmites australis marshlands, and traced the transformation of 13 C from leaf and root litter of invasive Spartina alterniflora into CO 2, soil-dissolved organic C (DOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and soil organic C (SOC). For this purpose, it is essential to continue monitoring areas where S. alterniflora has already invaded. Oecologia 144 (1), 1–11. Dlugosch, K. M., Parker, I. M. (2008). The forward primer was fluorescently labeled with 5′-FAM, TAMRA, and 5′-JOE. 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